Wednesday, August 5, 2009

What is Central Dogma of Genetics?

The genetic material of any organism is the substance that carries the information that determines its life cycle and its characteristics. There is a procedure by which this genetic material is used in living processes; this is the central dogma of genetics. Before the development of modern genetics, it was commonly believed that the substance responsible for heredity was a protein. Once DNA was recognized as the genetic material, the central dogma was established. This states that the information contained in DNA is translated into protein through the processes of transcription and translation. The protein is then used in all life processes, from cell division to electron transport in photosynthesis. For this to occur, DNA is copied (transcribed) into mRNA, and the mRNA is used as template for production of the protein in a process called translation. The message coded by the mRNA sequence gene is translated into a sequence of amino acids, the basic components of protein. Cells cannot produce a protein by simply aligning amino acids; they need to use an RNA template. Additionally, the use of an intermediate mRNA template in protein synthesis reduces the risk of damage to the DNA that can occur from repeated use. Additionally, the central dogma postulates that the intermediate mRNA molecule, a direct copy of DNA, can be used repeatedly in protein synthesis.

Main points of the central dogma are as under:
1) Genes are made of DNA.
2) Genes carry information about structures and biological functions, coded by nucleotides (A, C, G, and T).
3) The genetic information is converted in an mRNA molecule.
4) The mRNA defines the number, type, and order of amino acids in proteins.
5) The protein structure is determined by the linear order of amino acids.
6) The three-dimensional protein structure defines its biological function.

Tags: Bio Technology, Bio Genetics, Genetic Engineering

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