Sunday, August 30, 2009

Bio-Processing of Renewable Resources & its challenges

Most of the applications and potential applications of bioprocessing related to renewable and nonrenewable resources involve large-scale operations and products of relatively low value. The most abundant renewable material is lignocellulose. Wood, agricultural residue (corn stover, straw, etc.), plants grown deliberately for biomass (such as hybrid aspen), and recycled pulp fiber are the main sources of lignocellulose. Its largest industrial use is in making pulps for paper and other fiber products; second is the use of wood directly in construction.

Key Technical Challenges in Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources are as under:

1) To develop inexpensive cellulose pretreatment and saccharification processes effective with lignocellulosic materials on large scale with environmentally compatible methods.

2) To develop fermentations capable of converting pentoses to value-added products at yields, rates, and extents similar to those obtained for glucose with yeast and to increase product concentrations achievable in both hexose and pentose fermentations.

3) To develop more efficient separations for recovering fermentation products, sugars,and other dissolved materials from water, i.e., lower cost of separating water from product in fermentation broth.

4) To develop processes for large-scale inoculation, control, and propagation of microorganisms in surface culture (e.g., treatment of wood chips and bioremediation of soils) and solid substrate fermentation.

5) To increase knowledge of combinations of chemical, biochemical, and microbial transformations that result in value-added nonfood products from starch and cellulose.

6) To improve fractionation methods for separating oil, starch, and fiber components during corn milling to obtain higher co-product values with lower capital investment.

Tags: Bio Technology, Bio Genetics, Bio Process Engineering

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