Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Understanding of Bioartificial Organs

Tissue engineering involves the in vitro or in vivo generation of organoids such as cartilage, skin or nerves. More ambitious projects seek to ameliorate the quality of life of diseased or injured patients and reduce the economic burden of treatment. Bioartificial organs involve an in vitro prepared tissue-material interface fabricated into a durable device. A typical example is the bioartificial pancreas, which will be discussed in the following section as a case study. The extra-corporeal bioartificial liver and more recently the bioartificial kidney14 are examples of the transient replacement of organ functions, the former intended as a bridge to stabilize comatose patients until a whole organ can be procured. As the bioartificial pancreas is often microcapsule based, a specific section will be dedicated to review encapsulation technology prior to the application of this bioartificial organ for in situ insulin production.

Bioartificial organs require the combination of several research areas. The understanding of cellular differentiation and growth and how extracellular matrix components affect cell function comes under the umbrella of cell biology. Immunology and molecular genetics will also be needed to contribute to the design of cells or cell transplant systems that are not rejected by the immune system. Cell source and cell preservation are other important issues. The transplanted cells may come from cell lines or primary tissues—from the patients themselves, other human donors, animal sources or fetal tissue. In choosing the cell source, a balance must be struck between ethical issues, safety issues and efficacy. The sterilization and depyrogenation of the polymers involved in transplants is also critical. The materials used in tissue engineering and polymer processing are other key issues. The development of controlled release systems, which deliver molecules over long time periods, will be important in administering numerous tissue controlling factors, growth factors and angiogenesis stimulators. Finally, it will be useful to develop methods of surface analysis for studying interfaces between cell and materials and mathematical models and in vitro systems that can predict in vivo cellular events.

Tags: Bio Technology, Bio Genetics, Bio Artificial organs

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好想念 on March 16, 2010 at 10:35 PM said...

nice job! waiting for your new artical. ........................................