Friday, February 27, 2009

Types of Protein based products based upon their Commercial Importance

Proteins being biological macromolecules can be classified, according to their commercial importance as described below :

1) Regulatory Factors :
Regulatory factors are also like growth factors, which are closely involved in the process of signal transduction and expression of specific genes. These factors are called cytokines because they are involved in the growth and proliferation of cells. Cytokines include interferones (INF), interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, colonystimulating factors, etc. All these factors find use in therapeutic application for the treatment of different diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. For example, (X-interferon is used in the treatment of hepatitis C, p-interferon is used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and y-interferon is used for severe granulomatous disease.

2) Proteins and Enzymes Used in Analytical Applications:
In addition to the use of antibodies and enzymes as therapeutic agents, they are also used in the diagnosis of diseases as the components of some confirmatory tests of certain diagnostic procedures. Hexokinase and glucose oxidase are used in the quantification of glucose in the serum and urine. Glucose-oxidase is used in glucose electrodes. Uricase is used for the estimation of uric acid present in urine. Alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, and antibodies are used in ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay).

3) Industrial Enzymes and Proteins:
Among commercially useful proteins, industrial enzymes have the first place. Industrially useful enzymes include carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as amylases, cellulase, invertases, etc., proteolytic enzymes such as papain, trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc., and other bacterial and fungal-derived proteolytic enzymes and lipases that can hydrolyze various types of lipids and fats. All these enzymes are important in the food and beverage industries, the textile industry, paper industry, and detergent industry. Proteases have a special use in the beverage industry, meat and leather industries, cheese production, detergent industry, bread and confectionary industry, etc. Various types of lipases are used for the modifications of various types of lipids and fats, production of various organic acids including fatty acids, in detergents, production of coco butter, etc. In addition to all these, enzymes are used in chemical industries as reagents in organic synthesis for carrying out stereospecific reactions.

4) Non-catalytic Functional Proteins:
These commercially important proteins are used in the food industry as emulsifiers, for inducing gelation, water binding, foaming, whipping, etc. These non-catalytic functional proteins are classified as whey proteins. The proteins that remain in solution after the removal of casein are by definition called whey proteins.Commercially-available whey protein concentrates contain 35 to 95% protein. If they are added to food on a solid's basis, there will be large differences in functionality due to the differences in protein content. Most food formulations call for a certain protein content and thus whey-protein concentrates are generally utilized as a constant protein base. In this case the differences due to protein content as such should be eliminated. As the protein content increases, the composition of other components in the whey-protein concentrate must also change and these changes in composition have an effect on functionality.

5) Nutraceutical Proteins:
Nutraceutical proteins represent a class of nutritionally-important proteins having therapeutic activity. The whey-protein concentrates and some of the milk proteins of infant foods contain certain pharmaceutical proteins having high nutritive quality. Infants get the required proteins from the mother's milk, which also contains certain therapeutic proteins that protect the baby from infection and other problems. There are other infant foods, which also have more or less the same composition as that of mother's milk, made up of cow's and buffalo's milk. All these food proteins provide the infants the raw building materials in the form of essential amino acids and at the same time protects them from microbial infections and other diseases. Thus, milk is a very good source of nutrition.

Tags: Bio Technology, Bio Genetics , Protein Products

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